The Effects of Climate Change On The Andaman Nicobar Islands

Instrumental records of multiple and a half hundreds of years uncover that the earth has warmed by 0.74 [0.56 to 0.92] °C during the most recent 100 years, with 12 of the most recent 13 years being the hottest on record. Worldwide normal ocean level has increased at a normal pace of 1.8 mm each year somewhere in the range between 1961 and 2003. More extreme and longer dry seasons have been seen over more extensive regions since the 1970s, especially in the jungles and sub-jungles. Altogether expanded precipitation has been seen in eastern pieces of North and South America, northern Europe, and northern and focal Asia. Mountain ice sheets and snow cover have declined to normal in the two halves of the globe. The greatest territory made via occasionally frozen progress has diminished by about 7% in the Northern Hemisphere since the 1900s. There has been a decline of up to 15% in the term of spring. Long haul drying patterns during the period 1900–2005 have been seen in precipitation over numerous huge areas over the globe.

Projected Changes in Global Climate 

Information on the environment framework, along with model reenactments, affirm that previous changes in ozone-harming substance focuses will prompt a submitted warming and future environmental change due to the long reaction season of the environment framework, especially the seas. Submitted environmental change because of climatic synthesis in the year 2000 compares to a warming pattern of about 0.1°C each decade throughout the following twenty years, for example up to 2020s, without huge changes in volcanic or sun-oriented constraining. About twice as much warming is normal, for example around 0.2°C each decade. Somewhere in the range of 2000 and 2020, under the SRES A1B situation in the gathering of Atmosphere-Ocean Global Circulation Models (AOGCMs), the pace of warm extension is projected to be 1.3 ± 0.7 mm year – 1 and isn’t altogether unique under the A2 or B1 situations. These projected rates are inside the vulnerability of the noticed commitment of warm extension for 1993 to 2003 of 1.6 ± 0.6 mm year – 1.

Noticed Trends in Indian Climate 

‘Environmental Change and India: A 4X4 Assessment A sectoral and provincial investigation for the 2030s’, arranged by the Indian Network for Climate Change Assessment (INCCA) gives an appraisal of the effects of environmental change by the 2030s on four key areas of the Indian economy (Agriculture, Water, Natural Ecosystems and Biodiversity and Health), in four environment delicate locales of India, to be specific the Himalayan district, the Western Ghats, the Coastal Area, and the North-East. INCCA (2010) dissected the month-to-month greatest and least temperature information from 121 stations all around appropriated over the country during the period 1901–2007. Indian yearly mean temperature showed a huge warming pattern of 0.51oC/100 years, during the period 1901–2007 (Kothawale et al., 2010). Speed-up warming has been seen in the new period 1971–2007, chiefly due to extreme warming in the new decade 1998–2007. This warming is fundamentally contributed by the colder time of year and post-rainstorm seasons, which have expanded by 0.80°C and 0.82°C over the most recent hundred years, individually. The pre-rainstorm and storm temperatures likewise show a warming pattern. Mean temperature expanded by about 0.2°C each decade (for example 10 years) for the period 1971–2007, with a lot more extreme expansion in the least temperature than greatest temperature (Figure 3Aa). In the latest decade, the most extreme temperature was fundamentally higher contrasted with the long haul (1901–2007) mean, with a deteriorated pattern during this period, though the least temperature showed an expanding pattern, practically equivalent to that seen during 1971–2007. On an occasional scale, articulated warming patterns in mean temperature were seen in the colder time of year and storm seasons, and a critical impact of El Niño Southern Oscillation occasions on temperature irregularities during specific seasons across India was noticed. The all-India greatest temperatures show an increment in temperature by 0.71°C/100 years (Figure 3A). The greatest temperature during 1971–2007 has expanded significantly, which is 0.17 0 C/10 years. Notwithstanding, most extreme temperatures showed a declining pattern of – 0.03oC/10 years in the new past (1998–2007). This might be credited to the expanding overcast cover.

All-India mean yearly least temperature has essentially expanded by 0.27°C/100 years during the period 1901–2007 (Figure 3A). There are some obvious changes noted in various sub-periods in the base temperature. During the period 1901–1955, the all-India mean yearly least temperature shows a warming propensity, yet after 1955, it diminishes pointedly up to 1970 and later steadily increments. In the last three and a half many years, the all-India mean yearly least temperature shows a huge warming pattern of 0.20°C/10 years. In contrast to the most extreme temperature, the pattern in the base temperature during the most recent decade is kept up at the rate noted for the last three and a half many years. On the occasional scale, every one of the seasons shows critical warming patterns except post-rainstorm, where the pattern is positive but not huge. All-India storm precipitation arrangement dependent on 1871–2009 shows that the mean precipitation is 848 mm with a standard deviation of 83 mm. Between yearly inconstancy of Indian storm precipitation in this period is appeared in Figure 3B. The Indian rainstorm shows clear-cut epochal changeability with every age of roughly thirty years. Even though it doesn’t show any critical pattern, notwithstanding, when arriving at the midpoint of this period, a slight negative pattern of – 0.4 mm/year is seen.

Environment Profile of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands :


The Islands have a moist, tropical, and seaside environment. Vicinity to the equator and the ocean guarantees a sweltering, damp, and uniform environment. The Islands get precipitation from both the South-west and northeast rainstorm. The greatest precipitation is between May and December. The mean yearly precipitation is around 3000 mm. Somewhere in the range of 2001 and 2010, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (ANI) recorded the most reduced precipitation of 2287.12 mm during 2002 and a most noteworthy of 3254.76 mm in 2008.


During a similar period, at Port Blair, the most reduced mean greatest temperature was recorded as 30.20C during 2001, 2006, 2007, and 2008 and the most elevated mean most extreme temperature was recorded as 31.30C during 2010. Essentially, the least mean least temperature was recorded as 23.50C during 2001 and 2002 and the most noteworthy mean least temperature was recorded as 24.60C in 2010. The accompanying (Table 3.2) subtleties of the temperature recorded in Port Blair from 2001 to 2010.


On examining the mean relative stickiness rate recorded at Port Blair from 2001 to 2010, the least dampness was recorded at 0830 hours as 76% during 2004 and the most elevated mugginess was recorded at 0830 hours as 80% during 2008 and 2010. Also, the most reduced mugginess was recorded at 1730 hours at 79% during 2004, and the most noteworthy moistness was recorded at 1730 hours at 83% during 2008 and 2010.

Wind Speed 

On investigating the mean breeze speed (km/h) recorded at Port Blair from 2001 to 2010, the most reduced breeze speed was recorded as 5.8 km/h during 2005 and the most elevated breeze speed was recorded as 9.8 km/h during 2008.

Future Climatic Projection for Coastal Areas Including Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Normally, there will be an expanding pattern in the temperature, precipitation (both in force and number of blustery days), and event of outrageous temperatures in the seaside districts of India.

Yearly mean temperature 

Most pieces of India are showing a warming pattern, except in the north-western pieces of the country where a cooling pattern is noticed. Every one of the seasons shows huge warming patterns except post-storm, where the pattern is positive yet not critical. For India overall, the critical diminishing pattern in the recurrence of cold days and expanding pattern (near 5% huge level) in the recurrence of hot days have been estimated. A warming pattern is a conjecture for ocean surface temperature information of the north Indian Ocean district. The seasons might be hotter by around 20C towards the 2030s. The attributes of recreated occasional and yearly precipitation and mean temperature for the eastern beachfront district (standard and A1B situation) as reproduced by PRECIS are given below.

Ocean level ascent 

As indicated by the IPCC AR4, the misfortunes from the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica have likely added to the ocean level ascent somewhere in the range of 1993 and 2003. Stream speed has expanded for some Greenland and Antarctic outlet icy masses, which channel ice from the inside of the ice sheets. The related expanded ice sheet mass misfortune has frequently followed the diminishing, decrease, or loss of ice racks or loss of skimming icy mass tongues. According to the 4X4 Assessment, The Indian coastline, remembering the coastlines of ANI for the Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea, is 7,517 km of which 81% (6,100 km) is along the Indian territory encompassed by the Arabian Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east, and the Indian Ocean in the south. More than 40 million individuals live along this coastline. There are 13 seaside states and UTs defenseless to the ocean-level ascent in the country, with around 84 waterfront regions influenced by typhoons. With the environmental change, it is projected that the ocean level may rise farther than what it is today and with the warming of the seas, the force and recurrence of cyclonic exercises and tempest floods may build, prompting enormous scope immersion of the low-lying zones along the coastlines including ANI.

The climate of Andaman & Nicobar Islands

The climate of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands is tropical, with high temperatures and humidity throughout the year. The climate is influenced by the monsoons, with two distinct seasons: the southwest monsoon from May to September, and the northeast monsoon from October to April. During the southwest monsoon, the islands receive heavy rainfall, with average annual rainfall ranging from 2,000-4,000 mm. The Northeast monsoon is relatively dry, with lower rainfall and occasional cyclones. The temperature ranges between 20-35 degree Celsius throughout the year, with the highest temperature generally recorded in May and June. Humidity is high throughout the year, with average relative humidity ranging from 80-90%. The sea is warm, with surface temperatures ranging from 27-29 degrees Celsius. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are also prone to tropical cyclones and tsunamis, which can cause significant damage to the islands.

All views are expressed by the author. The pictures are from the website unsplash.com


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