What are the different types of climate risk disclosure?

Different types of Climate Risk Disclosure

Climate change is a severe, fundamental danger to global financial markets. Climate change will have catastrophic physical implications, but the move out from fossil fuels may make businesses and economic systems outdated. As even the tangible dangers caused by global warming are becoming more visible, investors are seeking an ever clearer understanding of the risks to which their investments are susceptible. Climate-related risks must be understood by businesses to appropriately assess projects, anticipate market dynamics, execute adaptation strategies, and discover new possibilities. Climate-related risks must be understood by investors to correctly assess businesses, and participate in managing risk, and systems and networks more confidently.

Appropriate and enforced disclosure regulations are the most appropriate form to assure reliable, clear, and rapid conveyance of facts about one firm to investors. However, present legislation makes it difficult, if not impossible, to compel, much less even implement, the reporting of climate-related hazards. Due to the lack of climate-related corporation disclosure regulations, organizations are free to have their criteria, range, and computation techniques when exposing climate change risks.

Following are some disclosures available in the market:

Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD)

It was created by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in recognition that climate change presents a significant risk to the global financial sector, which they have estimated at USD$5 trillion in potential losses. It is a guidance framework that helps companies disclose climate-related financial risks to investors, lenders, and insurers. TCFD recommendations are focused on governance, strategy, risk management, and metrics and targets.

When was the TCFD framework created?

The Task Force was created in December of 2015 as part of the finance industry’s response to the Global Financial Crisis, with a remit to identify and manage risks to the financial sector. The FSB is an international body that aims to protect the global financial system, so the focus on climate-related impacts on the sector is particularly significant. This body then reported its final report in 2017, which included the eleven recommended disclosures which guide TCFD reporting, Now under the guidance of Michael Bloomberg, as Chairman, the TCFD is made up of 31 Task Force embers drawn from some of the world’s largest financial institutions across the G20.

TCFD disclosure examples and structure

TCFD is made up of 11 Recommended Disclosures divided into four pillars. The four pillars are:


  • Governance: How do the organization’s governance bodies and management manage, assess, and oversee climate-related risks and opportunities.

Recommended Disclosures for Governance


  1. Describe how the board monitors climate-related threats and opportunities.
  2. Explain the role of management in analyzing and managing climate-related risks and opportunities.


  • Strategy: What are the tangible material impacts of climate-related risks and opportunities on the whole business, including strategy and financial planning?

Recommended Disclosures for Strategy


  1. Summarize the climate-related issues and hazards recognized by the company in the short, medium, and long term.
  2. Describe how climate-related risks affect the entire operation, strategies, and financial management.
  3. Define the institution’s policy’s resiliency in light of several climate-related situations, along with a 2°C or lesser future.


  • Risk Management: How does the organization define, assess, and manage climate-related risks?


  1. Specify how the organization identifies & assesses climate-related threats.
  2. Outline how the organization manages climate-related risks.
  3. Describe how systems for detecting, analyzing, and mitigating climate-related hazards are incorporated into the broader risk management of the organization.


  • Metrics & Targets: What are the measurements in assessing material climate-related risks and opportunities?


  1. Identify the indicators that the company uses to analyze climate-related risks and opportunities following its concept of risk management approach.
  2. Identify Scope 1, Scope 2, and, if applicable, Scope 3 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and associated hazards.
  3. Summarize the group’s aims for managing climate-related risks and opportunities, as well as its achievement against such targets.

Principles for effective disclosure

The Task Force suggests that enterprises explore seven evaluation elements for optimal disclosure to assist generate slightly elevated disclosures that allow participants to comprehend the consequences of climate change on organizations.


  1. Important data should be disclosed.
  2. Precise and comprehensive disclosure is required.
  3. Reporting ought to be simple, accurate, and easy to comprehend.
  4. Reporting should be stable over time.
  5. Equivalent reporting should indeed be made by enterprises within the same sector, industry, or portfolio.
  6. The disclosure must be trustworthy, accurate, and impartial.
  7. Disclosure should now be made as soon as possible.

Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB)

To differentiate between guidelines and reporting frameworks, consider applicability – who the framework’s primary audience is and just how individuals plan to apply the information given to generate investment choices, compare its performance amongst businesses, or maintain compliance. The Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) is an ESG guideline framework that establishes standards for corporations to disclose to their shareholders financially important sustainability information. According to the SASB Materiality Map, SASB standards track ESG concerns and performance across 77 industries. The SASB strategy is to identify industry sectors initially and then use complexities from each industry to establish the applicability of certain sustainability accounting standards. This judgment of materiality is a major distinction that other reporting frameworks do not provide.

SASB recommends that corporations stress particular disclosure as well as provide best practices for conveying Environmental, Social, and Governance matters using standardized formats. The SASB’s rules concentrate on what evidence must be released, but it merely provides advice about where to report or even how to disseminate ESG-related information. This adaptability intends to allow businesses to disclose key pieces of data in the most appropriate way for their company, whether through an Annual Report, Registration Document, or other financial reporting methods. A SASB index (or summary) is generally included as an annexure to a company’s CSR or ESG report.

These Standards are explained graphically through SASB’s Materiality Finder, are available for individual sector download, and may be viewed through our complete Standards Navigator database. SASB staff and Standards Board followed a Conceptual Framework and Rules of Procedure to develop these standards, which are designed to be cost-effective for companies to implement and decision-useful to both companies and investors. A materiality tool is a simple tool that enables easier and quicker access to the SASB Standards data you need. This tool was created after a significant market study and internet data parsing. SASB has published an Engagement Guide for investors to explore questions to ask firms about financially relevant concerns, as well as an Implementation Guide for companies that describes the issues and approaches to take while applying SASB Standards. When you input your company name into the tool, it will automatically start searching your concerns and performances across 77 industries. These industries include the following:

Consumer Goods, Extractives & material processing, Financials, Food & Beverage, Health Care, Infrastructure, Renewable Resources & Alternative Energy, Resource Transformation, Services, Technology & Communication, Transportation.



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