What are different Policies related to climate change in various countries?

Policies related to climate change

The Kyoto Protocol

On February 16, 2005, the Kyoto Protocol was initially introduced, and it established legislative objectives for GHG emissions. The initial 1990s emission reductions for participating countries ranged from –8% to +10%, while the overall reduction goal was 5% below the 1990 level by 2012 when the first commitment period ended, the Protocol was amended for a second commitment period, and a new reduction goal of 18% below 1990 levels by 2020 was set.

The Paris Agreement

In December 2015, all UNFCCC Parties agreed on a climate change mitigation and adaptation agreement known as The Paris Agreement, to keep global temperature increases below 2 degrees Celsius. On November 4, 2016, the Paris Agreement entered into force. By July 2021, the Paris Pact will have 197 signatories, with 191 parties approving the agreement.

Government Action in the U.S.

Federal Policy

The Clean Power Plan, introduced in 2015, would set a nationwide limit for CO2 emissions from power plants. The Supreme Court halted the plan in early 2016, and in 2019, the EPA repealed the Clean Power Plan and replaced it with the Affordable Clean Energy (ACE) Rule. By January 2021, the United States Court of Appeals had vacated the ACE Rule and returned it to the EPA.

A Green New Deal resolution was submitted to the United States House of Representatives in 2019, proposing a 10-year mobilization effort focused on goals such as net-zero GHG emissions, economic stability, infrastructure investment, clean air and water, and promoting justice and equality.

State Policy

Climate change action plans have been adopted by 33 states and the District of Columbia.

GHG emission reduction goals have been established in twenty-four states and the District of Columbia. California aims to reduce GHG emissions by 40% below 1990 levels by 2030 and to achieve net zero CO2 emissions by 2045. Renewable Portfolio Standards are in place in thirty states, Washington, D.C., and three U.S. territories, and they specify the proportion of power that must be generated from renewable sources by a given date. Five states have Clean Energy Standards that stipulate the percentage of power that must be generated from low-to-no carbon sources, which can include renewables, nuclear, and advanced fossil fuel facilities with carbon capture and sequestration. To defend the GHG reductions stipulated in the Paris Agreement, a group of governors founded the United States Climate Alliance. The partnership owns 57% of the company.

Policies in India


  • The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010

An Act to define a National Green Tribunal for the efficient and effective resolution of charges related to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources, along with the compliance of every legal right concerning the environment and providing relief and compensation for damages to persons and property, as well as matters connected with or incidental to the foregoing. Article 21 of the Indian Constitution provides inhabitants of India the right to a healthy environment, and the National Green Tribunal was founded in 2010. Following Australia and New Zealand, India is the third country to implement such a system. The tribunal is a unique quasi-judicial body made up of judges and environmental specialists that will guarantee matters are resolved quickly. The tribunal was founded to provide effective and timely resolution of disputes involving environmental protection, as well as to provide relief and compensation for damages to individuals and property, and to deal with associated issues. It was established with the primary goal of reducing the load of litigation in the higher courts.


  • The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981

An Act to provide for the prevention, control, and abatement of air pollution, the formation of Boards to carry out the abovementioned purposes, the conferring and assigning of authorities and functions relevant to the aforesaid purposes, and other issues connected therewith. The major goal of the Air Act is to provide laws to reduce and regulate air pollution in the country, and it establishes Boards at the federal and state levels to carry out the required procedures to accomplish this goal. The Boards are given the authority to establish regulations to guarantee that air pollution in the country is regulated. The Act also empowers the Boards to take action against companies that fail to achieve the established air quality criteria.


  • The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974

In 1974, the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was passed to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution, as well as the maintenance or restoration of the country’s water wholesomeness. In 1988, the Act was revised. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act was passed in 1977 to establish a levy and collection system for a cess on water utilized by people engaged in certain types of industrial activity. This tax is collected to supplement the funds available to the Central Board and State Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution, which was established under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1974. The last time the Act was changed was in 2003.


  • The Environment Protection Act, 1986

The Environment (Protection) Act of 1986 empowers the government to safeguard and enhance environmental quality, control and decrease pollution from all sources, and ban or restrict the establishment and/or operation of any industrial facility based on environmental considerations. The Environment (Conservation) Act was passed in 1986 to ensure environmental protection and enhancement. It gives the Central Government the authority to create authorities tasked with preventing all types of environmental pollution and addressing specific environmental issues that are unique to different sections of the country. The last time the Act was changed was in 1991. The Environment (Protection) Rules provide methods for determining emission and discharge criteria for environmental contaminants.

Hazardous Waste (Management and Management) Rules, 1989 aim to regulate hazardous waste creation, collection, treatment, import, storage, and handling.

The Hazardous Chemicals Manufacture, Storage, and Import Rules specify the terminologies used in this context and establish an authority to examine the industrial activity associated with hazardous chemicals and separate storage facilities once a year.


  • The Hazardous Waste Management Regulations

The Environment (Protection) Rules provide methods for determining emission and discharge criteria for environmental contaminants.

Hazardous Waste (Management and Management) Rules, 1989 aim to regulate hazardous waste creation, collection, treatment, import, storage, and handling.

The Hazardous Chemicals Manufacture, Storage, and Import Rules specify the terminologies used in this context and establish an authority to examine the industrial activity associated with hazardous chemicals and separate storage facilities once a year.

Policies in Canada


The Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP) of Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) defines the required reporting of GHGs (CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, HFCs, PFCs) above a particular level in Canada. Even though it has been in force since 2004, modifications to the GHGRP in 2017 reduced the reporting level from 50,000 tonnes of CO2e to 10,000 tonnes of CO2eq. PDAC collaborated with Avalon Advanced Materials to estimate that large-scale exploration drilling programs (i.e., 200,000 meters per year or activities with ten or more drills) might generate enough GHG emissions to trigger this monitoring and reporting requirement.


  • PDAC has created a GHG Emissions Calculator to assist you in determining your site-level GHG emissions. The calculator is still undergoing early testing.


At the end of 2016, the Government of Canada published its Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change (the “Framework”) to mitigate the effects of climate change and meet Canada’s climate reduction goals (to reduce economy-wide GHG emissions by 30 percent below 2005 levels by 2030). The Framework included a pledge to set a price on carbon emissions across Canada by September 1, 2018. (now January 1, 2019). Provinces and territories that do not already have a carbon pricing system in place, or that do not satisfy the federal government’s requirements, will be obliged to implement the federal government’s carbon pricing “backstop” specified in the Greenhouse Gas Pollution Pricing Act. The backstop is made up of two parts:

A charge on fossil fuels that is generally payable by fuel producers or distributors, with rates for each fuel starting at $10 per tonne CO2e in 2018 and rising by $10 per year to $50 per tonne CO2e in 2022, and an output-based pricing system (OBPS) for industrial facilities emitting more than 50,000 tonnes of CO2eq per year.


On November 25, 2016, the Government of Canada stated that it will work with provinces and territories, Indigenous Peoples, businesses, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to draught a Clean Fuel Standard. The standard aims to reduce GHG emissions by 30 megatons per year by 2030 and will apply to liquid, gaseous, and solid fuels used to generate electricity. Following discussions in early 2017, the Government of Canada announced the regulatory framework for the clean fuel standard. The framework emphasizes the segmentation of transportation, construction, and industry sectors, each with its own set of carbon intensity regulations and credit trading procedures. The Canadian government announced in July 2018 that it will revise schedules for the implementation of the Clean Fuel Standard. The proposed regulations for liquid fuels, which were supposed to be published in the autumn of 2018, will now be published in the spring of 2019 and will go into effect in 2022. Regulations for gaseous and solid fuels have also been deferred until 2020, with implementation set for 2023.


The Swiss Federal Council passed the Green Economy Action Plan in March 2013. The actions in the Plan enter into force when deficiencies persist and where there is exceptionally substantial potential for conserving natural resources, with the primary goal of assisting the business sector in its efforts. It lays out a total of 27 measures in four major areas: consumption and production, wastes and raw materials, cross-cutting instruments, and target, monitoring, information, and reporting, all to advance the Swiss economy.


One of Sweden’s key sustainable programs is Fossil-Free Sweden. It began as a government program before the Paris 2015 climate summit, with the objective of Sweden being one of the world’s first fossil-free welfare countries. It is open to all participants who endorse the initiative’s proclamation. The declaration says that participants in the effort must share the belief that the world must become fossil-free, and that participants must be able to propose real emission-reduction solutions. Today, more than 350 performers are involved in the campaign, which is available to anybody who signs the statement. The Swedish Riksdag (Sweden’s top decision-making body) has agreed that, in comparison to 1990, the objective for Swedish greenhouse gas emissions from activities outside the emissions trading system must be decreased by 40% by 2020. Renewable energy accounted for 52 percent of total energy consumption in 2013, intending to reach 50 percent by 2020.


Latvia 2030, the Latvian Sustainable Development Strategy, was endorsed in 2010 by Saeima (the Latvian Parliament). It is Latvia’s primary long-term policy planning tool; every other strategic planning and development document in Latvia has been and will be developed under Latvia 2030’s goals and action directions. The strategy describes Latvia’s long-term development goals (currently ten years) and proposes solutions for making effective and sustainable use of culture, nature, economic and social capital, and human capital. We’ll concentrate on its priority of “an inventive and eco-efficient economy” for the sake of this study.

United Kingdom

Climate Change Act 2008

The Climate Change Act of 2008 made the United Kingdom the world’s first country to establish a legally mandated long-term framework for reducing carbon emissions. It outlines the government’s goal of reducing carbon emissions in the UK to zero by 2050.

Carbon Budgets are a new concept introduced by the Act. A carbon budget limits the overall quantity of greenhouse emissions the UK can release over five years. The United Kingdom is the first country to enact legally binding carbon budgets.

Every tonne of greenhouse gases released between now and 2050 will be counted under a carbon budgeting scheme. When one sector’s emissions rise, the UK must achieve equal reductions in another.


The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive went into effect in January 2007 and has been updated several times since then. The directive attempts to limit the quantity of electronic and electrical waste created while also encouraging people to reuse, recycle, and recover it.

RoHS stands for the Restriction of Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive. Hazardous chemicals such as lead and cadmium are prohibited from being used in the manufacturing of new electrical and electronic equipment sold anywhere in the European Union, according to the legislation.

ESOS – Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme

Nearly 14000 UK businesses were required to perform an initial assessment of their energy consumption under EU rules. Only private and third-sector businesses are impacted, and they must employ at least 250 people or have annual revenue of more than £42.5 million; public-sector businesses are not affected.

The audits, which are mostly carried out by third parties, will result in energy-saving suggestions that can be implemented or not.

The audit entails a thorough examination of an organization’s energy usage. It should think about how energy is utilized in the following areas:


  • Buildings
  • Transportation
  • Industrial operations

The plan was divided into two parts, both of which should be completed by now. By the 5th of December 2015, all concerned organizations should have met Phase 1 standards and Phase 2 requirements by the 5th of December 2019.


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