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Affordable housing in India
The population of India has increased from 109 million in 1971 to 377 million in 2011 and is anticipated to reach 600 million by 2030. With increased urbanization and expanding cities providing opportunities, there is a fallout in the shape of slum expansion, expensive land, and construction material prices that make residences unaffordable for those in the lowest socioeconomic bracket. Rapid urbanization and migration to cities are producing a housing crisis in India, particularly among the poor. Real estate developers are increasingly focusing on medium and upper-income groups due to better earnings, making low-cost housing developments less appealing.
To address this issue, the Government of India has launched programs to create cheap housing in India. In this regard, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation has undertaken housing programs such as:
- Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) (Urban)- This plan seeks to provide houses for everybody by 2022, and it provides housing loan subsidies to first-time purchasers. This plan applies to all states and territories.
- Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) (Rural)- Previously known as Indira Awas Yojana, this is an initiative that gives pakka dwellings and basic amenities to homeless households. This plan gives financial aid and financing for house development with states.
- Rajiv Awas Yojana- Launched in 2009, this initiative seeks to bring all unlawful buildings into the formal system to foster a slum-free India. The center has accepted the project as Affordable Housing in Partnership under this program.
- Tamil Nadu Housing Board Program
The Tamil Nadu Housing Board Scheme, or TNHB, is one of India’s most popular housing programs. The Tamil Nadu state government distributes apartments or flats to LIG and MIG candidates who live inside the state’s limits through this initiative. Individuals can move into such flats after paying a small fee as an initial deposit.
- DDA Housing Scheme
The Delhi Development Authority Housing Scheme (DDA) is a specialized program of the Delhi government that gives homes to members of the high-income, middle-income, and low-income groups. Special reservations are also kept for a limited number of families from economically disadvantaged areas.
- NTR Urban Housing Scheme
When it comes to property affordability, residents of Andhra Pradesh may resort to their state’s inexpensive housing initiative, the NTR Urban plan. Beneficiaries would be required to contribute around one-third of the house loan principal amount, with the remainder covered by the state and federal governments.
Implementing Affordable housing
- Minimal dwelling size
As the demand for urban land rises, architecture in almost all forms, whether commercial or residential, is becoming higher. Whereas most standards use an area standard, adding an extra volume standard gives architects the ability to concentrate on the vertical layout of a housing unit as well.
- Cost of the house
When determining the buyer’s affordability, the cost of the property should include not just purchase prices, but also the maintenance costs of the housing unit. Lowering operational and maintenance costs via the use of sustainable features is important to the achievement of any affordable housing project.
- Provision of basic amenities
While most standards highlight minimal area and economic concerns, essential services like sanitation, water supply, and power to the living unit are required. Furthermore, communal spaces and resources like parks, schools, and health care facilities, whether within the project or in the surrounding neighborhood, are ideal.
- Location of the house
A property for affordable housing should be placed within a reasonable walking distance of businesses and be well-connected by public transportation. Though housing is built distant from main workplace centers or requires expensive transit to get to the city center, even if the price of the residential units is low owing to lower land prices, housing plus transportation (H+T) affordability suffers substantially. Major industry hubs can also act as workplace hubs in the case of innovative houses.